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General Horticulture

Horticulture Business/Careers

Careers in Horticulture

Choosing My Vehicle (Planning SAEs) (1,2,3) | (PPT)
Upon completing career lesson, ask students to complete activities in LK objectives with a horticulture emphasis.

Understanding Responsibility and Accountability (1,2) | (PPT)
Students relate personal responsibility to professional responsibility in a horticulture career.

Opportunities for Accomplishment in Organizations (2,3) | (PPT)
When students study careers in horticulture, have them pick a career in horticulture and draw a plan for accomplishment for this career defining what opportunities exist for accomplishment in this career. (Use transparency master A to discuss opportunities for advancement).

Sales, Service, and Customer Relations

The Importance of Building Relationships (2,3) | (PPT)
Positive human interaction is crucial to all aspects of our business and personal lives. Use this activity to strengthen the skill of building strong relationships.

Beginning Conversations (1,2) | (PPT)
Using the Locker Method contained in this LK Lesson, make the connection between establishing a good sales/service relationship with how to begin a new conversation.

Developing a Service-Leadership Attitude (all,IA) | (PPT)
Students will correlate the importance of a service-leadership attitude in the development of sales, service and customer relations in the horticulture industry. Have students utilize TM B to determine the four quadrants of leadership in relation to horticulture jobs. Review the behaviors from objective 3 as they relate to horticulture careers.

Types of Businesses

Defining Teamwork (all,IA) | (PPT)
When studying the benefits of cooperatives, students will be able to draw parallels with the benefits of working as a part of a team. Skills and talents are combined to strengthen the group, just as buying power is strengthened as members join a cooperative.

Life Balance (2,3) | (PPT)
The student will be able to determine how the different types of businesses in horticulture create synergy for the industry. Have students reflect on what can happen in an industry if there is imbalance.

The Origins of Organizations (1,2) | (PPT)
Make the connection between types of businesses and why they exist, to types of organizations. Discuss how each serves its members/customers.

Marketing and Distribution

Creating a Personal Vision (1,2) - (PPT)
Help students to make a parallel connection between a companys need for a vision for distributing their products successfully, and the students need to create a vision to be successful in their own lives.

Organizational Planning (2) | (PPT)
Take students to objective 2 and have them do the tic tac toe activity. Discuss how strategic planning in this activity is similar to strategic planning in the successful marketing and distribution of horticulture products.

Resources Available (all,IA) | (PPT)
In the world of business, we focus heavily on tangible items. In our personal lives, we look beyond that to find resources for our personal lives.

Budgeting and Cost of Production

Identifying Problems Correctly (1,2) | (PPT)
How is budgeting for a horticulture crop like problem solving? Have students role play the results of solving a negative cash flow incorrectly.

Evaluating Potential Impacts (all,IA) | (PPT)
When determining budgets within a horticultural business, we must have the ability to forecast potential problems and identify the positive and negative impacts of the choices we make, as all will effect us financially.


Use of Tools and Equipment

Practicing Honesty (all,IA)
Why is the safe operation of tools and equipment dependent on honesty from the entire class? Have students role play objective 2, utilizing a greenhouse scenario.

Identifying Important Skills for All Careers (1) | (PPT)
Using the first objective and activity, make the connection between the tools necessary in a horticulture program and the tools necessary for obtaining and holding a career in industry.

Conducting a Job Search (all,IA) | (PPT)
This LK lesson introduces students to the many resources (tools) which can be used in conducting a job search. In a horticulture lab, students have tools available, which when used properly, will aid them in accomplishing their given tasks.

Chemical Safety and Storage

Strategic Thinking and Planning (all,IA) | (PPT)
Students should create a strategic plan for chemical use and storage, utilizing the activity in TM D. Student should set realistic goals for developing this plan.

Understanding the Consequences of My Actions (2) | (PPT)
Give several examples of how a lack of chemical safety can lead to negative/dangerous consequences. Use this LK lesson to clarify the consequences of positive and negative actions in other life examples.

Appreciating Differences in People (all,IA) | (PPT)
Labels are of significant importance when dealing with chemicals, however we should respect the individuality of others, rather than label or stereotype them.

Safety Equipment and Practices

Team Codes of Conduct (all,IA) | (PPT)
Connect the need for proper safety practices and equipment use to code of conduct to classroom expectations. Objective 1 demonstrates the need for codes of conduct, 2-3 can be used to set up a real classroom code of conduct.

Becoming a Mentor to Others (all,IA) | (PPT)
Have students serve as a mentor to one another when utilizing safety equipment. How can positive mentoring affect the total environment in the greenhouse?

Valuing My Contributions (all,IA) | (PPT)
The actions of all contribute to a safe working environment. Students identify ways to contribute beyond their school, into their families and the community.

Horticulture Pests


Dealing with Non-team Players (all,IA) | (PPT)
Just as diseases can be a problem to a producer, difficult relationships within a team can hinder success.

Elements of the Change Process (all,IA) | (PPT)
Have students explain the change process of a disease of a horticulture crop. Utilize objective 2 activity and create a Picasso Moment depicting the disease change. Describe a positive and negative change event that could occur with a disease in a horticulture crop.

Identifying Problems Correctly (all,IA) | (PPT)
Make the connection that just as it is important to correctly identify plant diseases in order to properly treat them, it is similarly important to use problem solving skills in life situations.


Resources Available (1,2,IA) | (PPT)
Just as there are many ways to deal with insect problems, there are many resources available to deal with lifes problems. Use objectives 1-2 to help students identify their own resources to problem solving.

Becoming an Advocate for Agriculture and Natural Resources (1,2) | (PPT)
Use AHS.40 TM A Master to list the important impacts of agriculture. Have students advocate whether insecticides are necessary for the industry.

Understanding the Consequences of My Actions (all,IA) | (PPT)
This LK lesson discusses not only the negative results, but also the positive results from our actions in our lives. Some insects are harmful to horticultural products, while others are beneficial.


Managing My Journey (Managing SAEs) (all,IA) | (PPT)
Explain how evaluating is an essential tool in both the students SAEP and in controlling weeds and pests. Evaluate different scenarios in weed control and make adjustments to create the best method of control. Use the extended classroom activity with an IPM example.

Developing Solutions and Strategies (all,IA) | (PPT)
Make the connection from methods of weed control to strategies for real life problem solving. Students will create a list of ways to solve typical life problems.

Other Pests

Evaluating Potential Impacts (all,IA) | (PPT)
Use this LK lesson with an emphasis/connection to issues dealing with pesticide use. Connect to discussion of impacts in life decisions.

Evaluating Potential Impacts (1) | (PPT)
Utilize TM A to map out a plan for controlling types of greenhouse pests.

Introduction to Group Problem Solving (2,3) | (PPT)
Encounters with pests force producers to solve problems. Effective problem solving skills are reinforced through objectives 2 and 3.

Developing a Pest Management Plan

Using Planning Skills (all,IA) | (PPT)
Effective planning must be practiced in our personal lives, as well as on the job. These objectives focus on effective and ineffective planning.

How Leaders Influence Others Through Vision (all,IA) | (PPT)
How can visionary leadership affect a team in developing a pest management plan? Utilizing objective 2, describe why it is important to articulate your plans to others.

Modifying and Evaluating Actions (all,IA) | (PPT)
Just as an IPM plan should be reviewed/revised periodically, so should real-life action plans.

Plant Propagation

Sexual Propagation

Developing Professional Growth Plans (2,IA) | (PPT)
In order for a plant to reproduce, it must go through several stages of growth before a new plant can be propagated. Students will make a connection to a professional growth plan in their lives to reach a final goal.

Using Your Community as a Laboratory for Leadership (1) | (PPT)
Have students observe and journal types of seed propagation in their community. Ask students to consider when and why sexual propagation is used in plant production.

The Value of Diversity on Teams (all,IA) | (PPT)
When discussing cross pollination, an analology can be formed with diversity in groups. As a result of a new plant forming, positive combinations of traits can be seen. When diverse groups combine their skills, we can capitalize on the skills of everyone.

Asexual Propagation

Mobilizing Others to Action (1,2) | (PPT)
Just as cuttings require special assistance (rooting hormone, growing medium, mist system, etc.), it is sometimes necessary for us to motivate others to action, while providing them the resources to be successful.

Results Without Jeopardizing Relationships (1) | (PPT)
Asexual propagation allows production of an exact genetic duplicate of the parent plant, without jeopardizing the risk of an undesirable plant being formed. Through this LK lesson, students learn how to achieve results without jeopardizing relationships.

Appreciating Differences in People (3) | (PPT)
Asexual propagation is a method used to maintain an exact cultivar, or replica of a plant. Have students appreciate the uniqueness of each variety, just as one should appreciate the uniqueness in each other.

Specialized Propagation

Collaborative Relationships (IA) | (PPT)
Compare and contrast collaborative relationships in the FFA with collaborative structures in plant life cycles. If one type of specialized propagation didnt exist, how would this impact the plant industry?

Plant Physiology and Growth


Understanding Creativity (2) | (PPT)
After teaching about photosynthesis, utilize the concept in LK lesson HS.26 and have students think critically about the impact should photosynthesis suddenly no longer exist. Walk students through the process of critical thinking.

Finding Opportunities to Make Positive Change (all,IA) | (PPT)
Make the connection that through photosynthesis, a plant turns useless elements into sugar for its, and our own, survival. Students will explore how change is often a positive endeavor.

Life Balance (1,3) | (PPT)
While learning about photosynthesis, students identify factors required for plants to survive. Objective 3 of this LK lesson asks students to identify factors that contribute to a balanced life.


Developing Partners for Your FFA Chapter (1,2) | (PPT)
Like developing partners for your FFA Chapter, respiration is an essential partner for plant growth and development. Use Obj. 2 to identify key partners in the community and parallel this to respiration being a key process to a healthy environment.

Life Balance (2,3) | (PPT)
Respiration is just one of the many physiological functions of plant life, as there are other equally important processes such as photosynthesis. Make the connection that students, also must find ways to create balance in their own lives.

Transpiration and Translocation

Defining Roles on Teams (1,2) | (PPT)
Through objectives 1 and 2, show students that just as transpiration and translocation are related plant functions, so too are task and human oriented roles on teams.

Valuing My Contributions (1,2) | (PPT)
Review the term contribution in LK HS.29 and have students describe how transpiration and translocation are contributors to the plant life cycle.

Effective Listening Skills (all,IA) | (PPT)
This LK lesson includes an activity that will encourage students to strengthen their listening skills as a necessary component in the communication process. Transpiration and translocation are processes necessary in plant life.

Photoperiodism and Phototropism

Becoming an Advocate for Agriculture and Natural Resources (all,IA) | (PPT)
Proper light is critical in the production of plants. Strengthening a positive image of agriculture in the eyes of the general public is critical to our industry.

Answering Questions from Others (2) | (PPT)
Compare the four steps in responding to questions to the steps involved when a plant responds to light through phototropism and photoperiodism.

Responding to Audience Feedback (1,3) | (PPT)
Connect the light responses taught in this horticultural area with the appropriate responses to audience feedback in speeches and discussions. Students will identify types of feedback and how to deal with each.

Plant Nutrients and Functions

Understanding Ways People Are Different (2,3) | (PPT)
Relate the differences in essential plant nutrients, emphasizing the fact that the plant can not survive without all of them, to the differences in people.

Mobilizing Others to Action (1,2) | (PPT)
In the FFA, creating desire and motivation in others is essential for success. In determining the plant nutrients and their functions, each nutrient is responsible for a specific task and empowers other plant responses. Utilize these objectives to draw parallels to this essential leadership components.

Understanding Healthy Eating Habits (all,IA) | (PPT)
Healthy plants are provided essential nutrients in the proper quantities. This LK lesson emphasizes the importance of healthy lifestyles for students.

Controlling Plant Growth

Understanding the Use of Time (all,IA) | (PPT)
Plant growth is controlled through management techniques, depending on scheduling. We use management in scheduling our personal and professional lives.

Process and Product Evaluation (2,3) | (PPT)
To get to an ideal product, plant growth must be thoroughly understood and at times, controlled. A product must be evaluated and the process changed to enhance a final product. Utilize the process evaluation to describe plant growth control methods.

Identifying Others to Grow and Develop (all,IA) | (PPT)
Just as there are steps to managing plant growth, there are similar steps to helping individuals grow.

Plant I.D. and Classification

Plant Taxonomy

How Organizations Are Structured--National, State and Local (all,IA) | (PPT)
Compare how the National FFA Organization is broken into National, State and Local Organizations to how the Kingdom is broken into Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species.

Seven Roads to Success (all,IA) | (PPT)
Plants are classified according to distinguishing and differing characteristics, just as careers in agriculture are divided into 7 career clusters.

Parts of Plants

Components of the Communication Process (1,3) | (PPT)
All parts of a plant have a function. There are also essential components in the communication process (delivery, interpretation, and receiving information). This LK lesson includes an activity where students present a message modeling the communication process.

The Benefits of Character and Integrity (all,IA) | (PPT)
A students role in an organization requires them to be responsible and accountable. Plant structures, likewise, have certain functions with all other plant parts required for the perfect operation of plant growth.

Appreciating Individual Talents and Strengths (2,3) | (PPT)
Explore the connection between the importance of each plant part to the importance of varying talents in a team setting.

Plant Life Cycles

The Stages of Development (1,2) | (PPT)
Create a link between the plant life cycles and stages of development in students lives.

Understanding the Use of Time (1,3) | (PPT)
How does time management affect the individual? Discuss the issues dealing with time management in classifying plant life cycles and how time management is essential to plant production and scheduling of a horticulture crop.

Understanding Ways People Are Different (1) | (PPT)
Plants are grouped according to life cycles (annuals, perennials). Just as a landscape includes a variety of plants, there is great value in the variety of cultural identities in our society.

Classification and I.D. of Horticultural Plants

Opportunities for Influence in Organizations (3) | (PPT)
Describe how the classification of plants might influence where a plant is grown and for what purpose. Compare and contrast this to leadership and how a students influence may impact growth and development of an organization.

Classification & I.D. of Horticultural Plants: HS.101 : Learning to Assess Others Strengths (all,IA) | (PPT)
Show students that just as plant identification can be difficult, it can also be difficult to identify the strengths in other people. The LK lesson will show how to help others succeed by helping them find their strengths.


Long-Term Goals and Opportunities (all,IA) | (PPT)
Students will connect the importance of planning and managing long term goals, with the long term commitment of managing trees in the landscape.

Creating Engaging Chapter Meetings (all,IA) | (PPT)
A well run chapter meeting should have a definite goal and must meet the needs of the audience. Likewise, arboriculture must have distinct goals to meet the environment and a plan of action to reach the desired outcomes.

Becoming a Mentor to Others (1) | (PPT)
Just as a tree is pruned to train it to grow in the correct way, we look to guidance from others, and can serve as a mentor in the lives of someone else.

Current Issues and Trends

Environmental Issues in Horticulture

Evaluating Plans and Goals (1,3) | (PPT)
Horticulturalists must evaluate their practices and the environmental effects of those practices, just as we must evaluate our plans and goals in our personal and professional lives.

Leading Others in Strategic Thinking (all,IA) | (PPT)
Utilizing the concepts in this LK lesson, form groups and have them implement these leadership strategies to develop group projects relating to the environmental issues in the horticulture issues. Groups should implement strategic thinking strategies to effectively produce a group project.

Becoming an Advocate for Agriculture and Natural Resources (all,IA) | (PPT)
Upon completing a lesson in environmental issues, use this lesson to show students how to advocate for the protection of certain necessary horticultural practices.

Trends in the Industry

Strategic Thinking and Planning (all,IA) | (PPT)
Students will use this LK lesson to relate current trends in horticulture and planning for these trends, to planning for changes in their own lives as they become adults.

Identify Resources for Continued Growth (2,3) | (PPT)
Relate the SCANs report in LK lesson AHS.13 to the development of recent trends and issues in the industry. How might the requirements change based upon these current trends and issues.

Approaching New People (all,IA) | (PPT)
This LK lesson introduces the benefits of forming new relationships and ways to initiate interaction. The horticulture industry experiences constant change, and individuals involved must be able to embrace the change.

Labor Issues

Leader-follower Relationships (all,IA) | (PPT)
High turn-over in the workplace (often due to seasonal employment) creates greater strain on relationships on a team. This LK lesson discusses the importance of developing strong Leader-Follower (Employer-Employee) relationships.

The Role of Mentors and Coaches (all,IA) | (PPT)
How can mentoring impact labor issues in the horticulture industry? Utilize this LK lesson to show steps in establishing mentors and how this can impact labor issues in the industry.

Recruiting FFA Members (all,IA) | (PPT)
Make the connection between the constant challenge of recruiting good employees into the horticulture industry to the FFAs challenge of recruiting new members. Have students use a horticulture emphasis in their FFA recruitment plan in this lesson.

Diminishing Resources

Embracing Emerging Technology in the Workplace (all,IA) | (PPT)
Integrate this LK lesson into a lesson on diminishing resources in the horticulture industry. Have students provide examples of how emerging technology can counteract diminishing resources.

Developing Innovative SAEs (all,IA)
When finding ways to cope with diminishing resources, we must think in innovative ways. This LK lesson encourages the students to look in innovative places for SAE opportunities. Having an innovative SAE in horticulture will help combat issues associated with diminishing resources in the industry.

Applying Critical Thinking (all,IA) | (PPT)
Have students complete the LK lesson with an emphasis on dealing with diminishing resources in the horticulture industry.

Turf and Landscape

Landscape Design

History and Types of Design

Philosophies of Leadership (all,IA) | (PPT)
When introducing students to the history and types of design, different styles are discussed. This LK lesson discusses 4 philosophies of leadership and allows students to determine which philosophy they support.

Trying New Ideas (all,IA) | (PPT)
Upon completion of this horticulture lesson, explore the LK lesson with an emphasis on the positive changes in our industry.

Meeting New People (1,2) | (PPT)
When discussing how landscape design has changed over time, discuss with students how their attitudes and feelings have changed over time with regards to meeting new people. Also, use objective 2 to discuss how formal and informal settings impact design and meeting new people.

Principles of Design

Leadership Styles (2) | (PPT)
After studying the principles of design, have students read through the leadership profiles in LK HS.5, and select which style of design each leader would choose and defend their answer.

Identifying Planning Skills (1,2,3)
Make the connection between proper planning in the landscape, to planning in real life applications.

Long-Term Goals and Opportunities (2,3) | (PPT)
Objectives 2 and 3 of this LK lesson guide students through the process of setting and following goals. Principles of design are presented to students to guide them in developing landscape plans.

Scale and Proportion

Creating Timelines (all,IA) | (PPT)
A well proportioned landscape is one in which all types and sizes of plants work together to accomplish the goal of the designer. Members must work together to accomplish the goals of a team. This LK lesson includes an applicable example of an FFA chapter that all can benefit from.

Finding Opportunities to Make Positive Change (all,IA) | (PPT)
Just as a properly scaled/proportioned landscape can positively modify an existing landscape, there are many other opportunities available in life for positive change.

Levels of Teamwork (1) | (PPT)
Have students work in groups on a scale and proportion project. Review with students the stages of team development before their work in order to create an efficient group with a great end product.

Drawing a Plan

Communicating with Customers (all,IA) | (PPT)
After drawing landscape plans, have groups present their projects to the class, implementing the skills utilized in this LK lesson. Emphasize how students should effectively communicate their plans to customers (the other students in the class).

Conceptualizing Ideas (all,IA) | (PPT)
Use the examples/activities in this lesson to demonstrate how getting ideas on paper helps facilitate an end result more efficiently, just as a plan must be created for a landscape before plants are installed.

Teaching Others About Your SAE (1,2)
When drawing a landscape plan, the designer must take into account the vision of the project and possible barriers to the project. This LK lesson teaches students how to create a personal vision, keeping in mind the barriers that they may encounter.

Computer Assisted Design

Elements of the Change Process (3) | (PPT)
A benefit to Computer Assisted Design is that changes can be made quickly and easily (with a click of the mouse!). Through this LK lesson, students will study the benefits of making positive changes in their personal lives.

Embracing Emerging Technology in the Workplace (1) | (PPT)
Connect the use of computerized drafting with this LK lesson. Use the activity in objective 1 to examine the advantages and disadvantages of technology in horticulture.

Seven Roads to Success (all,IA) | (PPT)
Have students list the important skills necessary in Computer Assisted Landscape Design. Cross reference these skills to the 7 career areas in horticulture in this LK lesson. What skills learned in this lesson can be utilized in other agriculture career areas.


Goal Setting Strategies (all,IA) | (PPT)
Xeriscaping has very specific goals. Apply the S.M.A.R.T. strategies in goal setting from this LK lesson to the principle of Xeriscaping.

Assessing the Strengths of Others (all,IA) | (PPT)
Just because little or no water is available in a given area does not mean that a landscape can not be designed and installed. By capitalizing on what does exist in dry environments, we can install a xeriscape design. We can similarly capitalize on the strengths of others.

Capitalizing on the Strengths of Others (all,IA) | (PPT)
In many areas, the lack of water is a serious problem, however, it is one many wish to forget. We must be sensitive to this and incorporate Xeriscaping, even when we may find other landscape designs to be more attractive. Objective 3 asks the individual to take the needs of others into account, regardless of our personal wishes.

Selecting Suitable Plants

Defining Roles on Teams (all,IA) | (PPT)
Landscapes require many plants to accomplish the purpose of that landscape, just as teams require people to meet the many necessary roles to be successful.

Understanding Creativity (all,IA) | (PPT)
Just as creativity can lead to a unique landscape when selecting plants, creativity can also be effective in leadership situations.

Identifying Needs and Aligning with Vision (all,IA) | (PPT)
Have students solve landscape plant selection problem scenarios. Have students determine whether they can solve the given problem in the scenario by implementing the skills taught in this LK lesson.

Theme Landscaping

Brainstorming Solutions (2,3,IA)
In a group, have students apply brainstorming techniques to the concept of theme landscaping. Use the interest approach to get them to open their minds to others opinions and ideas.

First Impressions (all,IA) | (PPT)
Just as the first look at a landscape can reveal a common theme, the first impression of a person can speak volumes--both positive and negative.

Leadership Styles (all,IA) | (PPT)
There are many different themes people may choose when designing a landscape. Some incorporate ideas from a number of different themes to create their own. The different leadership styles can be incorporated to form a strong organization.

Following a Landscape Budget

Identifying and Utilizing Available Resources (all,IA) | (PPT)
Have students evaluate resources for ways to save money when designing a landscape budget. Students can determine the value of a resource by utilizing principles in this LK lesson.

Adjusting Your Journey (Evaluating SAEs) (all,IA) | (PPT)
A successful landscape project must follow a realistic budget. Throughout the project, horticulturalists must evaluate along the way, and make periodic adjustments. This practice is reinforced through the LK lesson relating to evaluating SAEs.

Team Codes of Conduct (1,2) | (PPT)
A budget can serve as a strict framework when planning a landscape. Similarly, a team code of conduct can help guide a team by setting clear expectations.

Turf Production

Turf I.D. and Classification

Identifying Your Learning Styles: What Turns My Gears? (2,3) | (PPT)
In horticulture, proper identification of turf can lead to a perfect fairway or putting green. This LK lesson will examine learning styles and how identifying each students learning style can also lead to exceptional results.

Human Potential (1) | (PPT)
Use the definitions in Obj. 1 of human potential and personal assets to the potentials for each type of turf grass. How would the use of each turf grass change based upon the potential of the grass?

Appreciating Differences in People (all,IA) | (PPT)
This LK lesson includes an activity that asks students to break into groups to study different cultures. By studying the similarities and differences in the many types of turf, students can relate to the similarities and differences in cultures.

Establishment of Turfgrass

The Importance of Handshakes and Eye Contact (all,IA)
When establishing turfgrass, there are many fundamental steps that should be followed from start to finish to achieve success. When meeting people, proper initial greeting and eye contact are important in portraying interest, confidence and respect.

Establishing Team Mission (all,IA) | (PPT)
Just as it is crucial to newly installed turf to have an effective vision through management plan, it is essential that teams create a vision to direct their success.

Turfgrass Management and Fertilization

The Role of Physical Activity in Personal Success (all,IA) | (PPT)
This lesson promotes an active lifestyle for better health, just as an active management and fertilization program leads to a green, healthy lawn.

Understanding the Role of Responsible Citizens (all,IA) | (PPT)
Understanding the roles of fertilizers in turfgrass production can be related to the role of citizenship each of us play in our world.

Commercial Turfgrass Production

Coping with Adversity (all,IA) | (PPT)
Use this lesson to show that adversity doesn't need to hinder ones success, in fact adversity may be a tool towards success. After a short period of growth, we mow our turf back down--yet this is a renewal process, just as adversity can be in our own lives.

Discovering the World of Agriculture (all,IA) | (PPT)
Use this lesson to show that adversity doesn't need to hinder ones success, in fact adversity may be a tool towards success. After a short period of growth, we mow our turf back down--yet this is a renewal process, just as adversity can be in our own lives.

Identifying Planning Skills (1,2)
Commercial Turfgrass Production involves many processes that require a great deal of planning. Objectives 1 and 2 of this LK lesson relate directly with effective planning skills.

Turf and Landscape Management

Landscape Maintenance

Seeking Counseling (all,IA) | (PPT)
If left unattended to, the landscape will soon fall into disarray. Humans are no different--we need to seek guidance from others on a regular basis to help us deal with lifes challenges.

A Lifetime of Service to Others (2,3) | (PPT)
Maintaining a lifetime of service is much like maintaining a landscape. This LK lesson includes a character study of former US President and FFA member, Jimmy Carter. A lifetime of service is portrayed through him, in that his contributions have extended far beyond his time in political office.

Effective Listening Skills (all,IA) | (PPT)
Review the three types of listening in the LK lesson with your students. Have students list how this skill is important in landscape maintenance and in classwork.

Irrigation and Drainage

Collaborative Relationships (all,IA) | (PPT)
Collaborative relationships entail people working together intellectually to accomplish a goal. In many areas of horticulture, irrigation and drainage cannot exist independently of each other--rather, they are dependant upon each other.

Analyzing Risks and Rewards of Change (all,IA) | (PPT)
How have irrigation and drainage systems changed in the last ten years? Discuss with the class the importance of change events utilizing irrigation and drainage systems as the topic. Have students hypothesize the risks associated with change in drainage and irrigation systems.

Defining Personal Mission (all,IA) | (PPT)
When discussing irrigation and water runoff, we ask students Where does it go from here?. This LK lesson shows students how a personal mission statement can effect where they go from here in their personal lives.

Controlling Pests

Conceptualizing Ideas (all,IA) | (PPT)
This LK lesson encourages students to master the skill of brainstorming to conceptualize ideas in an effort to realize that there are may ways to control pests in the landscape.

Selecting a Strategy (all,IA) | (PPT)
Given a pest issue, have students implement the problem solving methods discussed in this LK lesson. Determine the advantages and disadvantages and then select the best mode of control.

Effective Listening Skills (1,2,3) | (PPT)
A grower who doesn't walk his fields and inspect his crops (in effect, listening to them) might find their crops ravaged, diseased, leading to a loss in profit. Failure to effectively listen to other people can lead to similar results in ones life.

Maintaining Landscape Equipment

Managing My Journey (Managing SAEs) (2)
This exciting lesson makes the connection between the need for proper equipment maintenance, and keeping up ones recordbook.

Defining Responsibility (all,IA) | (PPT)
Review the important precepts involved in the MS.8 lesson on responsibility. Have students apply this LK lesson to the importance of safe upkeep of equipment. How could responsibility affect this task?

Understanding Adverse Effects of Risk Behaviors (3) | (PPT)
Objective 3 of this LK lesson provides guidance to students for warding off health risks and negative peer pressure. Proper maintenance of landscape equipment essentially manages the health of the equipment, reducing equipment failure.


Site Analysis

Human Potential (1,2) | (PPT)
Identifying the components and characteristics of a landscape site is much like identifying the characteristics within ourselves. This lesson guides students in recognizing their character strengths, talents, and skills.

Leading Others to Create a Vision (all,IA) | (PPT)
Visioning techniques are essential in developing a plan and analyzing a site. Develop skills in students using this LK lesson to develop shared goals and visions before performing site analysis.

Leading Others to Create a Vision (all,IA) | (PPT)
Site analysis is conducted as a preliminary tool in developing a landscape design, helping set the stage for an actual design. Developing goals can help set the stage for success in life.

Site Preparation

The Importance of Attitude (all,IA) | (PPT)
No matter how good the design of a landscape may be, the lack of proper site preparation can lead to disaster later on. Even the strongest teams can meet a similar fate if the proper attitudes are not present in the group.

Understanding the Consequences of My Actions (all,IA) | (PPT)
Site preparation is the first important step in establishing a landscape. Improper actions at this stage leads to negative consequences later in the plan. Likewise, our personal actions have consequences, and this lesson relates that.

Travel and Dining Etiquette (2) | (PPT)
Just as a table must be set properly, a landscape site must be prepared properly.

Proper Planting Techniques

Using Appropriate Language and Humor (all,IA) | (PPT)
Proper and improper use of language and humor in communication are discussed in this LK lesson. The correlation between proper and improper planting techniques can be made here.

Understanding SAEs (2)
Just as there are steps to establishing an SAEP, there are steps necessary to planting shrubs, trees, and plants. Processes are essential for success in both planting horticulture products and in SAE development.

Presentation Tips--Skills and Strategies (all,IA) | (PPT)
Proper planting techniques help plants establish themselves in the landscape more quickly, and with a higher success rate. When giving a presentation, there are also some common tips to being more efficient and effective.

Following a Landscape Plan

Promoting FFA Opening Doors (1) | (PPT)
What are the tangible and intangible benefits of a landscape design and following a landscape plan? Review the tangible and intangible befits though this LK lesson.

Responsible Citizenship (2) | (PPT)
It is the responsibility of everyone that the landscape plan be followed precisely and correctly. For example, a misplaced irrigation line could lead to dry spots in the lawn later. This LK lesson examines the correct and precise way to get involved in the political process.

Creating Timelines (all,IA) | (PPT)
The daily need to create realistic time-lines and follow them to accomplish our end goals can be related to the need to follow a landscape plan in order to achieve the goals set forth in the design process.


Floral Design

History of Floral Design

Forming Key Messages (1) | (PPT)
Identify what a key message is. How has the key message changed over time in the floral design industry? What key messages are delivered through the use of flowers? (For example yellow roses mean friendship).

Trying New Ideas (1,2) | (PPT)
Relate the tips/benefits of trying new ideas contained in this lesson to the benefits of people trying new floral design techniques. What would the industry look like without these individuals willingness to change?

Basic Design Principles

Identifying Planning Skills (1,2,3) | (PPT)
Make the connection between proper planning in the landscape, to planning in real life applications.

Assessing the Strengths of Others (3) | (PPT)
Discuss the theory of multiple intelligences with students. How might a persons given intelligence impact their selection of a floral design? When might each intelligence utilize the floral industry?

The Importance of Attitude (all,IA) | (PPT)
When explaining the influence of the basic design principles on the final product, a connection can be made to the influence of positive attitudes in a team.

Fresh, Dried and Permanent Designs

Selecting a Strategy (1)
Many factors lead to decisions in floral design. This LK lesson introduces students to the many processes of decision making (autocratic, democratic, consensual, and laissez faire).

Recruiting FFA Members (3) | (PPT)
Recruitment in FFA requires a specific target audience and a strategy for reaching this target. Floral designs must also reach the target audience and connect them on a personal level.

Developing Solutions and Strategies (all,IA) | (PPT)
Creative techniques for dealing with common problems have lead to some common practices in the floral industry. For example, dried flowers originally came from a lack of fresh flower availability in various areas as well as a providing a solution to longevity. This LK lesson will show students the processes to follow when searching for creative solutions to industry issues.

Color Wheel

FFA Opportunities (all,IA)
A florist has myriad of options when using the color wheel to create color patterns. Similarly, the FFA can offer unlimited opportunities for each and every student.

Identifying Philosophies of Leadership (2) | (PPT)
Discuss the three philosophies of leadership and contrast them to the philosophies of color and the use of the color wheel.

Advancing a Career (all,IA) | (PPT)
The shades of color change as you advance on the color wheel. We encounter changes in our lives when advancing in a career.

Tools and Materials

The Role of Mentors and Coaches (all,IA) | (PPT)
Stem wiring is a method used by florists to maintain longevity in arrangements by supporting the flower in the desired position. A mentor can serve as a support system to the individual.

Understanding the Consequences of My Actions (all,IA) | (PPT)
Students should realize that a primary leadership component in any setting is the respect of others property. Utilize this LK lesson to show students the importance of using tools correctly, safely and maintain proper storage. Remind students that, as in the LK Lesson, there are consequences both good and bad for certain actions.

Leadership Styles (all,IA) | (PPT)
Each leadership style has strengths to bring to the group. Identifying each style can help a group work more efficiently. Each tool has a specific use and must be identified correctly before being used safely.


Interior Design and Construction

Selecting a Strategy (2,3)
There are many different options and types of arrangement construction. A strategy will help narrow the options. For example, the strategy provides low cost, hardiness, bright colors, etc. Selecting a strategy is an approach to be practiced in real life situations, as well.

Involvement in Community (2) | (PPT)
After teaching a lesson on constructing an interiorscape, have students implement a community service activity. Students should design and carry out an interiorscaping project in their community.

Leader-follower Relationships (all,IA) | (PPT)
Elements must work together in interior design, just as the leaders and followers must work together in an organization.

I.D. and Care of Houseplants and Foliage Plants

My Decisions and the Opinions of Others (all,IA) | (PPT)
There is such an amazing variety of foliage plants available to choose from! Through this lesson, students will study their daily decisions and understand the importance of seeking input in making those decisions.

Teaching Others (all,IA)
Develop a project with a local elementary school or senior center where high school students teach others the care and use of foliage and houseplants. Implement content concepts from your horticulture lessons with the LK lesson on how to teach others to have this be a great project for all involved.

Introduction to Situational Leadership (1,2)
Life has a wide variety of situations and a variety of methods for handling them. This lesson identifies ways to deal with different situations just as plants must be cared for on a situational level. There is no perfect care recipe for every plant.

Indoor Container Gardens

Setting Team Expectations (1,2) | (PPT)
By using containers, we are able to set some acceptable limits on what plants will be like in the interior landscape (for example, small containers, large, tall, hanging, etc.) Team expectations can similarly set acceptable limits and expectations to help keep the group cohesive.

The Role of Physical Activity in Personal Success (1,2) | (PPT)
Physical activity is vital to healthy living. This LK lesson stresses the importance of a physical regime in daily living and the importance of training a body to be healthy. Many of these same factors are important in utilizing indoor containers. Many types of interiorscapes need a maintenance schedule and training to remain healthy.

Collaborative Relationships (all,IA) | (PPT)
In an indoor container garden, different plants can work together to create a beautiful micro-environment. In life, working collaboratively means to work with others in an intellectual endeavor, creating a healthy society.

Cut Flower Production

History of Cut Flower Industry

Getting Your Message Understood (all,IA) | (PPT)
Describe how different cultures use flowers to convey messages in society. How has the industry adapted over the years to accommodate these message.

Elements of the Change Process (all,IA) | (PPT)
The cut flower industry has experienced dramatic changes from its inception, this LK lesson will explore the idea of change and how it can be both positive and negative depending on certain circumstances.

Producing Cut Flowers

Identifying Important Skills for All Careers (1,2) | (PPT)
Have students complete this lesson with an emphasis on producing cut flowers. Make the connection that just one area of the floral industry can still require a variety of different career skills (i.e. soils, employee relations, harvesting, shipping, sales, plant science, retail, wholesale, design, etc.).

Responsible Citizenship (all,IA) | (PPT)
What political issues affect the cut flower industry? After studying this issue, have students create a list is issues affecting the cut flower industry and how they would push legislation to address these issues. This LK lesson shows students how to become active in the political process.

Understanding the Use of Time (all,IA) | (PPT)
A great deal of planning and management is applied in the production of cut flowers, all of which results in a beautiful end product that must be ready at the precise time. Time management skills are needed in our daily lives to allow us to stay the course and accomplish our end goals.

Flower and Foliage Conditioning, Storage and Handling

Managing My Journey (Managing SAEs) (all,IA)
The importance of proper storage of cut flowers creates a healthy and marketable product. This can be related to the importance of managing a students SAE.

Mobilizing Others to Action (2,3) | (PPT)
How might the important principles of empowerment, persuasion and motivation be essential in the cut flower industry? What impact do these principles have on tasks such as preparing for a major floral event like a wedding? These principles as well as techniques to implement them are discussed in this LK lesson.

Creating Positive Impressions in Public (all,IA) | (PPT)
Students will connect the importance of the steps to keep flowers looking fresh and saleable, to the steps to creating a positive self image in public.

Marketing Cut Flowers

Getting Your Message Understood (2,3) | (PPT)
One of the most important aspects of marketing is to get your message heard and understood. This lesson focuses on ways to make your point clear and practice related skills.

Aligning Activities to Mission and Vision in Groups (1,2 | (PPT)
A successful year in the FFA depends on having a great vision for the year with the mission and aligning activities. In a similar fashion, the marketing of cut flowers depends greatly on many activities that take place prior to this goal. Use the activities and transparencies to have students walk an end-product through the production and distribution of cut flowers.

Mobilizing Others to Action (1,2,3) | (PPT)
Now that we have the product, what do we do with it? This question faces members each day when they have set their goals. This LK lesson shows students how to create a desire and motivation in others and set a goal into action.

Greenhouse and Nursery Management

Greenhouse Structures and Facilities

Types of Greenhouses

Finding Opportunities for Service in Your Families, School and Communities (2) | (PPT)
Could a greenhouse be used as a cooperative project? Many school and community organizations form partnerships for the purpose of managing a greenhouse. This idea can be linked to a study in community service projects.

Types of Relationships (1) | (PPT)
Use a definition of relationship to discuss the different relationships that exist in the Greenhouse and Nursery Industry. Discuss with students why relationships are essential in selection of a certain type of greenhouse.

The Need for Positive Relationships (1,2) | (PPT)
Use this lesson to relate the importance of positive relationships to the positive impact on types of greenhouses may provide. Without greenhouses, certain plants would otherwise be impossible to grow in certain climates.

Other Types of Horticultural Facilities

Components of the Communication Process (all,IA) | (PPT)
Relate to the LK lesson on the communication process, by giving students the topic of The facilities necessary in a high school horticulture program as the speech activity in Ojective 3.

Capitalizing on the Strengths of Others (all,IA) | (PPT)
Review the importance of tapping into others strengths and correlate the comparison to types of horticulture structures. How can selection of buildings and facilities make greenhouse facilities more efficient and productive?

Construction and Design

Visioning Skills (all,IA) | (PPT)
In planning and constructing a greenhouse, the designers and builders must have a vision of the desired outcome. This LK lesson encourages students to develop a vision of their future desired actions and accomplishments.

Earning Trust (all,IA) | (PPT)
Trust is an essential component in the design and construction of a horticulture facility. Have students brainstorm what could happen if a greenhouse construction company was untrustworthy in selling a product.

Developing Speeches Using the Magic Formula (all,IA) | (PPT)
Upon completing a lesson on construction, complete the LK lesson on speech construction. Students can draft a quick speech on How to construct a greenhouse.

Site Selection

Learning to Assess Others Strengths (1,2) | (PPT)
In order to choose a site properly, many factors must be considered. Similarly, in groups, it is important to consider the strengths of others in order to find out how they can best benefit the group.

Assessing the Strengths of Others (1,2) | (PPT)
Review the importance of tapping into others strengths and correlate the comparison to types of horticulture structures. How can selection of buildings and facilities make greenhouse facilities more efficient and productive? What benefits does each type of structure provide the total work environment?

Factors of Self-image (2,3) | (PPT)
There are positive and negative factors that are discovered when selecting the desired site of a greenhouse. There are positive and negative factors that contribute to self-image as addressed in Objective 2 of this LK lesson. The skills to be learned is how to identify the controllable factors that lead to positive self image, just as a horticulturalists must identify what factors can be controlled to achieve proper site selection of a greenhouse.

Maintaining Structures and Facilities

Being Responsible and Accountable (1) | (PPT)
The length of life of a horticultural facility is directly related to the maintenance of the structure and equipment. Individuals must be responsible and accountable for their actions when managing all areas.

Understanding the Use of Time (all,IA) | (PPT)
The maintenance of structures and facilities, although time consuming, is essential in the production process. Utilizing this time management lessons, discuss the adverse effects on time if machinery and equipment is not maintained. (For example, it takes longer to repair or replace necessary equipment than to have a regular maintenance schedule.)

Managing My Journey (Managing SAEs)
This exciting lesson makes the connection between the need for proper equipment maintenance, and keeping up ones recordbook.

Environmental Factors of Growth

Greenhouse Heating and Cooling

Elements of the Change Process (2) | (PPT)
Use the Interest approach to begin discussion on change. Objective 2 will explore how change is often a good thing. Relate this lesson to how we can make changes in the greenhouse environment to provide a better growth environment for plants.

Researching Careers (3)
Research careers in both the agriculture industry and in other industries that deal with heating and cooling systems. How can understanding these intricate systems benefit students in career acquisition?

Dealing with a Range of Emotions (1,2) | (PPT)
When discussing temperature ranges in a greenhouse, students can correlate to the ranges of emotions of people.

Greenhouse Vent Air Control

Positive and Negative Influence (1,2) | (PPT)
This LK lesson can be linked to discussions on positive and negative air flow within a greenhouse to influence the environment. In our lives, there are positive and negative factors that influence our well-being.

Techniques for Handling Change (all,IA) | (PPT)
This LK lesson can be linked to discussions on positive and negative air flow within a greenhouse to influence the environment. In our lives, there are positive and negative factors that influence our well-being.

The Need for Leaders (2)
This lesson outlines seven principles for why leaders are needed. Compare these seven principles to why vent air control is necessary for a greenhouse.

Greenhouse and Nursery Light Management

Building a Relationship with a Mentor/Coach (3) | (PPT)
Have students apply the principles of the mentor/protégé relationship to freenhouse and nursery light management. Have them schedule an interview with a professional in the field, and then apply the five steps in meeting with a mentor. Students should come back with specific goals and a plan of action for a greenhouse crop and lighting event.

Managing Change in Your Career (all,IA) | (PPT)
This lesson focuses on how to deal with career changes students will likely experience in their lives. Just as we can determine a plants growth by modifying lighting, students can address many of their own wants and needs via a career change.

Identify Resources for Continued Growth (1) | (PPT)
Correlate the act of identifying resources for continued growth in our lives with the act of providing continued environmental management factors such as proper light for continued plant growth.

Greenhouse Moisture and Humidity

Mobilizing Others to Action (all,IA) | (PPT)
Mist systems are a great example of how we can help encourage new cuttings to take root. Likewise, outside influences are needed to help students take root and maximize their potential.

Embracing Emerging Technology in the Workplace (all,IA) | (PPT)
Compare and contrast the different technology used in controlling humidity and in watering plants in a small high school greenhouse vs. a commercial greenhouse or nursery operation. After doing so, have students describe why technology that is used in the industry may not be feasible to a small grower.

Growing Horticultural Plants

Product Selection

Developing Professional Growth Plans (all,IA) | (PPT)
Utilize skills in this LK lesson in a greenhouse setting. When deciding which products to grow, resale, wholesale or retail, have the stakeholders take part in developing a growth plan for the greenhouse or nursery.

Finding Opportunities for Service in Your Families, School and Communities (all,IA) | (PPT)
Create the link between selecting the proper plants for sale in your school/community with service projects that would best serve your school/community. Students could create a horticulture service project such as growing plants for the school landscape.

Preparing for the Trip (all,IA) | (PPT)
Product selection when planning greenhouse production is a critical aspect of management. Will our chosen product meet demands of consumers? This LK lesson introduces the process of selecting and preparing for a career in the areas of agriculture. Use this to correlate selecting greenhouse plants and preparing for markets.

Product Scheduling

Strategies for Efficient Time Use (2,3) | (PPT)
Horticulture products must be ready for harvest or sale at the times demanded by customers. Scheduling is important in our personal lives, as well. Use this LK lesson to correlate greenhouse scheduling with personal and professional scheduling.

Creating Timelines (all,IA) | (PPT)
Timelines are important in all aspects of ones life. Create a link between the importance of creating a timeline for plant growth from seed to sale, to creating a timeline for a real life application (a goal for example). Emphasize the link between dead time in the greenhouse and wasting time in real life.

Life Balance (all,IA | (PPT)
Correlate the importance of balancing priorities in ones life to the importance of balancing tasks and priorities in the greenhouse. When in a production season, often there are many tasks which need to be handled at one time. How can greenhouses insure that all activities get accomplished? Apply similar life balancing activities!


Conceptualizing Ideas (all,IA) | (PPT)
Apply the skill of conceptualizing ideas to hydroponics. Students can design a new hydroponics system in an existing greenhouse or in groups conceptualize how hydroponics might be used 20 years from now. Use the activities and definitions to baseline and set an expectation for students prior to assigning this activity.

Identifying and Utilizing Available Resources (1,3)
Hydroponics involves the production of plants without the need/use of soil. (This method can be used in space, the moon, or in tight spaces.) This method is used when traditional resources are limited or to maximize production in small spaces. This lesson encourages students to identify the resources available and make them work positively for them.

Conducting a Workshop to Help Others Start SAEs (all,IA)
The extended classroom activity in this lesson is a great supplement to a unit on hydroponics. What better way to teach hydroponics, than to design a system that can be shared with others as a movable lab? This could be used at career fairs, recruitment nights, etc. as an eye-catching example of agriculture!

Container-Grown Plantings

Planning a Service Project (all,IA) | (PPT)
Container grown plantings make for great service projects for an FFA chapter! While studying the plantings, students can apply their practice to a finished project to beautify their school or community buildings.

Proficiency Awards and SAE (1)
Students can design an agriscience project on the best methods for growing certain nursery stock. Have students research industry trends and interview industry personnel on preferences before beginning.

Growing Media

The Value of Diversity on Teams (all,IA) | (PPT)
The perfect soil blend is dependant upon regional preferences, available resources and material cost and availability. Likewise, the perfect team is a blending of important ideas and concepts from each. Use the benefits and challenges of diverse teams in the LK lesson to illustrate the benefits and challenges of mixing growing media components.

Valuing My Contributions (all,IA) | (PPT)
In a growing medium, each component adds an essential characteristic to the mix. Perlite, for example, holds water and improves drainage. Each person also adds unique contributions to their society and those around them. Use this lesson to explore how each of us is valuable in society.

Identifying Needs and Aligning with Vision (1,2) | (PPT)
Different plants require different growing medias. It is the responsibility of the grower to ensure that the correct media is chosen for the given situation. This LK lesson encourages students to gather information from all possible areas before making a decision or solving a problem.

Irrigation Systems and Drainage

Demonstrating Empathy (2,3) | (PPT)
Irrigation and drainage systems vary for many reasons including regionality, climatic requirements, and resources available. Apply empathy skills to have students think how irrigation and drainage systems change given a specific scenario (i.e. production in California vs. Alabama).

Presentation Tips--Handouts and Resources (all,IA) | (PPT)
After reviewing LK lesson, have students create different types of visual aids related to irrigation systems and drainage. The class can be grouped into different areas to cover different types: posters, transparencies, props, etc. Presentation upon completion will strengthen public speaking skills.

Collaborative Relationships (all,IA) | (PPT)
Collaborative relationships entail people working together intellectually to accomplish a goal. In many areas of horticulture, irrigation and drainage cannot exist independently of each other--rather, they are dependant upon each other.

Nursery Production

I.D. of Nursery Stock

Learning to Assess Others Strengths (all,IA) | (PPT)
Show students that just as plant identification can be difficult, it can also be difficult to identify the strengths in other people. The LK lesson will show how to help others succeed by helping them find their strengths.

Conversations in Groups (2)
After teaching a lesson on ID of nursery stock, have students apply the skill of open and closed ended questions from LK MS.37 to create a Jeopardy Game on the content delivered. Then use this game for review during the rest of the unit.

Types of Nursery Production

Understanding Integrity (all,IA)
Integrity is an essential business skill in all horticulture and agriculture industries. Implement this LK lesson and have students discuss the importance of integrity when involved in a nursery business. It is helpful to review the characteristics of integrity and actions which help to create integrity found in this LK lesson.

Types of Teams (1,2) | (PPT)
Just as there are several types of nursery production, there are a variety of team settings. Upon completion of a horticulture lesson in this area, use HS.67 to relate how there are different teams for different types of situations.

Production of Nursery Stock

Long-Term Goals and Opportunities (all,IA) | (PPT)
Students will connect the importance of planning and managing long term goals, with the long term commitment of managing trees, shrubs, and perennials in the landscape.

Results Without Jeopardizing Relationships (all,IA) | (PPT)
Most nursery stock is reproduced through cuttings, grafting, and layering, eliminating the chance of a negative traits in the genetic makeup of the offspring. Although outcomes are less predictable when dealing with human interaction, this LK lesson encourages students to work through situations while reducing risks of jeopardizing relationships.

Finding Opportunities for Others to Grow and Succeed (3) | (PPT)
Use the HS1.2.AS.A worksheet for personal growth plans in the scheduling and production of nursery stock. Create goals for production and utilize the evaluation form to be efficient producers.

Maintaining Mother Plants

Demonstrating Compassion for Others (1) | (PPT)
Compassion is a characteristic used to describe how people show empathy and care for one another. Compare this to caring for the mother stock. Without proper attention of parent stock the industry would be severely damaged, just as our society is severely damaged without proper care of our patrons.

Keeping a Job (all,IA) | (PPT)
The maintenance of mother plants is essential to keeping them alive, and in turn, maintaining a viable source of cuttings. Similarly, there are some vital tips to maintain a job.

Keeping a Job (all,IA) | (PPT)
To maintain financial success as a grower, we must maintain employment. A nursery that does not maintain healthy mother plants will not have the core materials necessary to remain profitable.